Pests

Green peach aphid

Green peach aphids (GPA) are widespread within Australia and damaging to a range of horticultural and broadacre crops. Their body colour is variable ranging from yellow, green, and orange to pink.

The green peach aphid can be difficult to control and has developed resistance to more insecticides than almost all other insect species. Rotating chemical groups and taking advantage of biological control are essential

to extend the useful life of the available chemistries.

Damage

GPA often cause less direct feeding damage than other aphid species, but are important vectors of plant viruses. In canola, direct damage by green peach aphid can occur during autumn

and early winter, and occasionally during spring. In canola, GPA Myzus persicae has been identified as the most important vector of Beet Western Yellows Virus (BWYV). BWYV can result in complete canola crop loss in severe cases.

Control Options

Betta Strike® Seed Treatment is highly effective against redlegged earth mite and blue oat mite, and numerous aphid species including GPA, protecting against the spread of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Betta Strike® wll protect canola seedlings from early season aphid damage. Apart from being disruptive to IPM systems, insecticide resistance to broad spectrum insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids is rendering them ineffective in controlling pests. Seed treatment provides a cost effective solution to controlling these pests, with a highly targeted approach to insect control and preserving desirable insect species within the farming system 

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®, #Crusier Opti®

grey cabbage aphid

Cabbage aphids are one of several aphid species that can be problematic in canola crops. They are a widespread, introduced pest that forms distinctive colonies of many individuals on the flowering spikes of canola during late winter and spring. Cabbage aphids transmit a number of plant viruses, which can cause significant losses in crops.

Damage

Direct feeding damage: 

Infestations start when winged aphids fly into crops from autumn weeds. Cabbage aphid infestations occur most frequently in canola from early flowering to late pod development. 

Adults and nymphs suck sap from plants and high numbers can result in yield loss by reducing pod set, pod fill and grain quality. Colonies often become evident by the distortion and discoloration (yellowing) of infested parts. Canola is particularly susceptible to aphid damage during bud formation through to late flowering. 

 Secretion of honeydew by aphids can cause secondary fungal growth, which inhibits photosynthesis and can decrease plant growth. 

Indirect damage (virus transmission):

Cabbage aphids cause indirect damage by spreading plant viruses. Aphids spread viruses between plants by feeding and probing as they move between plants and paddocks. The ability to transmit particular viruses differs with each aphid species and viruses may be transmitted in a persistent or non-persistent manner (see below). This influences the likelihood of plant infection.

Control Options

Betta Strike® Seed Treatment is highly effective against redlegged earth mite and blue oat mite, and numerous aphid species including Cabbage aphid, protecting against the spread of viruses. Betta Strike® wll protect canola seedlings from early season aphid damage. Apart from being disruptive to IPM systems, insecticide resistance to broad spectrum insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids is rendering them ineffective in controlling pests. Seed treatment provides a cost effective solution to controlling these pests, with a highly targeted approach to insect control and preserving desirable insect species within the farming system. Insecticide seed treatments form an important part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, as they are active as soon as the crop is sown and reduce the need for blanket broad spectrum insecticide sprays. 

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®, #Crusier Opti®

red legged earth mite

Very common and widespread pest of pastures and most broadacre crops. Approximately 1 mm in length with a velvety black body and 8 orange-red coloured legs.

Damage

Feeding causes silvering or white discoloration of leaves and distortion or shriveling in severe infestations. Affected seedlings can die at emergence with high mite populations. Feeding symptoms can be mistaken

for frost damage.

Control Options

For low-moderate mite populations, insecticide seed dressings are an effective method. Insecticide seed treatments form an important part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, as they are active as soon as the crop is sown and reduce the need for blanket broad spectrum insecticide sprays. 

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®, #Crusier Opti®

Blue oat mite

Blue oat mites are major agricultural pests of southern Australia attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. There are three pest species of blue oat mites that differ in their distributions, pesticide tolerances and host plant preferences.

Damage

Feeding causes silvering or white discoloration of leaves and distortion, or shrivelling in severe infestations. Affected seedlings can die at emergence with high mite populations. Unlike redlegged earth mites, blue oat mites typically feed singularly or in very small groups.

Control Options

For low-moderate mite populations, insecticide seed dressings are an effective method. Insecticide seed treatments form an important part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, as they are active as soon as the crop is sown and reduce the need for blanket broad spectrum insecticide sprays. 

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®

Lucerne flea

The lucerne flea is an introduced pest commonly found in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. It is a green-yellow globular insect commonly found in broadleaf crops and pastures. Lucerne fleas have a furcula underneath their abdomen that acts like a spring and enables them to ‘spring off’ vegetation when disturbed. Synthetic pyrethroid sprays are not effective. Grazing management, border sprays or spot spraying may be sufficient to control lucerne flea populations.

Damage

Lucerne fleas move up plants from ground level, eating tissue from the underside of foliage. They feed through a rasping process, leaving behind a thin clear layer of leaf membrane that appears as transparent ‘windows’ through the leaf. In severe infestations this damage can skeletonise the leaf and stunt or kill plant seedlings. Crops and pastures are most susceptible at the time of emergence.

Control Options

Seed treatments have provided effective early control of Lucerne Flea. Betta Strike® seed treatments offer control of insect pests, from emergence through to the early growth stages, when seedlings are particularly vulnerable. Insecticide seed treatments form an important part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, as they are active as soon as the crop is sown and reduce the need for blanket broad spectrum insecticide sprays.

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, #Crusier Opti®

 

wheat aphid

Russian wheat aphid is potentially a more severe pest than other aphids. While aphid feeding damage generally results in yield losses of up to 10%, in overseas crops Russian wheat aphid has caused yield losses of more than 80 per cent. Unlike other aphids, Russian wheat aphids inject a toxin into susceptible crops, like wheat and barley, which can severely retard growth or under heavy infestations, kill the plant.

Damage

Russian wheat aphid can cause direct yield losses and damage, unlike other aphids which are a problem because they transmit viruses. Yield impacts depend on the crop development stage. Aphids feeding during the early booting to soft dough stage can cause direct yield losses. After soft dough stage,  it appears that further impact is minimal. If aphids are controlled plants may recover unless excessively stressed. Overseas data suggests that this  aphid does not thrive in conditions above 25°C, but this needs to be confirmed in Australian conditions.

Control Options

Betta Strike® Seed Treatment is highly effective against numerous aphid species, protecting against the spread of viruses. Betta Strike® wll protect canola seedlings from early season aphid damage. Apart from being disruptive to IPM systems, insecticide resistance to broad spectrum insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids is rendering them ineffective in controlling pests. Seed treatment provides a cost effective solution to controlling these pests, with a highly targeted approach to insect control and preserving desirable insect species within the farming system. Insecticide seed treatments form an important part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, as they are active as soon as the crop is sown and reduce the need for blanket broad spectrum insecticide sprays. 

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®

CORN aphid

Corn aphids are introduced and are a relatively minor pest of cereal crops. They attack all crop stages but most damage occurs when high populations infest cereal heads. Corn aphids are most prevalent in years when there is an early break to the season followed by mild weather conditions in autumn. Corn aphids transmit a number of plant viruses, which can cause significant yield losses.

Damage

Corn aphids can invade crops at any time between seedling stage and grain fill. Early infestations can cause reduced tillering, stunting and early leaf senescence.

Control Options

The use of insecticide seed treatments can delay aphid colonisation and reduce early infestation, aphid feeding and the spread of cereal viruses.

There are several insecticides registered against corn aphids in various crops including cereals. A border spray in autumn/early winter, when aphids begin to move into crops, may provide sufficient control without the need to spray the entire paddock.

Avoid the use of broad-spectrum insurance sprays and apply insecticides only after monitoring and distinguishing between aphid species. Consider the populations of beneficial insects before making a decision to spray, particularly in spring when these natural enemies can play a very important role in suppressing aphid populations if left untouched.

Seed Treatment

*Poncho® Plus, *Gaucho®

 

*Registered trademark of the Bayer Group.

#Registered trademark of Syngetna Group Company.